Project Outputs


Publications

  • Seven Country Reports
    Reforms in China in the 1980s promoted growth and economic strength in many sectors. These changes contributed to reshaping labor mobility in the country including internal movement between rural and urban areas. Large scale migration from inland regions to coastal areas began in the 1990s and, by 2020 numbers had reached 286 million (China National Bureau of Statistics).
    Read more..

 

 

  • Summary Report
    AGRUMIG End of Project Meeting, Brussels, 6th-7th December 2022:
    Leaving something behind – Migration governance and agricultural and rural change in ‘home’ communities
    The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) (https://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/), in collaboration with partners of the AGRUMIG project, organised an end-of-project meeting on December 6 and 7, 2022, in Brussels, Belgium. The meeting sought to examine research results and implications for policy across the project’s seven focus countries – China, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Morocco, Nepal, and Thailand, demonstrating how better-informed policy can support more effective migration governance.
    Read more..

 

  • AGRUMIG Policy Brief Series – No. 11: Labor Shortage and Changes in Land Use Patterns. Experiences from Migrant Communities in Ethiopia and Nepal
    This brief explores how households and communities cope with labor shortages resulting from out-migration and whether labor shortages lead to any changes in land use patterns. These are key questions given concerns about consequences of migration, including land abandonment, in countries like Nepal where the rate of labor migration is high.
    Read more..

 

  • AGRUMIG Policy Brief Series – No. 10: Does Pre-departure Orientation Protect Labor Migrants? Examining Pre-departure Interventions in Nepal
    Migration has been instrumental in bringing about the most significant transformation in livelihoods in Nepal over the past three decades. While the Himalayan nation has a long history of migration—initially for recruitment in the British Army and labor work in India—the phenomenon has increased exponentially since the 1990s. The major share of migration is now to overseas destinations, particularly for labor contract work in the Persian Gulf countries and Malaysia, and to a lesser extent, to more lucrative destinations such as South Korea, Japan and Poland.
    Read more…

 

  • AGRUMIG Policy Brief Series – No. 9: Applying a Rural Development Lens to Migration Policy in Kyrgyzstan
    Development trends in Kyrgyzstan include declining agricultural production, a steady increase in remittances to rural areas from labor migration and an increasing role for the non-agricultural sector in the rural economy. These trends suggest that labor migration is having a transformative effect, with significant opportunities for rural development, but also challenges ahead. Even though migration has a huge impact on the country’s economy (remittances account for some 30% of the country’s GDP), to date migration governance focuses mainly on the rights protection of migrants and does nothing about sending communities and rural development policy. The attractiveness of rural villages for return migration and the well-being of those leftbehind should be a major focus for migration policy along with the inclusion of migration as cross-cutting issue in rural development policy at all levels.
    Read more..
  • AGRUMIG Policy Brief Series – No. 8: Mainstreaming the needs of migrant children and sending communities into the rural schools development agenda in Kyrgyzstan
    Many studies indicate that labor migration is the main economic survival strategy for all population groups in Kyrgyzstan, but especially young people. Migration affects rural schools in several ways. Young people are not interested in fully completing their secondary education, and after the 9th grade, many drop out of school and start looking for jobs. This problem is compounded by the shortage of school teachers in the country. According to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Kyrgyz Republic, teaching vacancies in subjects such as computer science, English, biology, chemistry, mathematics and physical education have not been filled for years in many schools. Recent university graduates are not interested in filling these vacancies as labor migration offers a more favorable way of entering the labor market.
    Read more..
  • Make migrants a core part of rural development: AGRUMIG Policy Dialogue Meeting Report, Kyrgyzstan
    The record-breaking levels of migration in today’s globalized economy are deeply reshaping social, economic, and political settings in both sending and receiving countries. For policymakers, practitioners, and migration researchers, understanding and seeking efficient adaptation policies in such a fast-changing environment is a key priority. The AGRUMIG project aims to support policy solutions to this complex situation, examining the relationship between migrations and “sending communities” in low and middle-income countries, with particular attention to transformations taking place in the agrarian sector.
    Read more..
  • AGRUMIG Policy Brief Series – No. 7: Migration returnee database and contribution to local development in Thailand
    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes migration as a catalyst for sustainable development. Migration contributes to the economy and social development in both sending and receiving countries. For instance, migrants spend on consumption in the host countries, and also send remittances back home. Thailand has sent migrants overseas in large numbers since the 1970s. After the political situation changed when the US military shut down operations in Udonthani province, some 100,000 migrants left to work in the Middle Eastern countries including Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain. In the 5th National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP) (1982-1986), Thailand’s development strategy formally included promoting out-migration, reflecting the growing importance of migrants’ contribution to the national economy.
    Read more..
  • AGRUMIG Policy Brief Series – No. 6: Migration and COVID-19 in context: Labor migration in Ethiopia and its implications for policy responses
    The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically affected global mobility since its outbreak in early 2020. It has taken the lives of millions and led to wholesale changes at all levels in the way people interact, move and work. By mid-March 2022, at least 476 million people had contracted the infection, and some six million died from COVID-19. Among those most affected by the pandemic have been migrants, often from communities that were already vulnerable due to having limited economic, social and other resources at their disposal to be able to establish resilience and overcome shocks to household livelihoods. This brief examines the effects of COVID-19 on labor migration in Ethiopia as well as the government’s responses to these effects and their implications.
    Read more..
  • AGRUMIG Policy Brief Series – No. 5: Migration and COVID-19 in context: Labor migration and the agriculture sector in Nepal
    International labor migration is the cornerstone of household livelihoods in rural Nepal. The country receives remittances equivalent to about a quarter of its gross domestic product annually. In the past two years, however, the international labor markets that Nepali workers depend on have been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the first nationwide lockdown imposed in Nepal (and globally) in March 2020, and subsequent restrictions on mobility in the country and around the world, labor migration to India and other countries has been disrupted while there has also been an upsurge in return migration, often under conditions of distress.
    Read more..
  • Examining migration governance: evidence of rising insecurities due to COVID-19 in China, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Morocco, Nepal and Thailand.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly changed the context of global migration. From a migration perspective, the pandemic is a source of insecurities that challenge migrants, their livelihoods and migration governance. Meanwhile, curtailment in movement has led to economic decline affecting labour markets. For migrant origin and hosting countries, this poses multidimensional development challenges.
    Read more..

 

  • Migration, environmental change and agrarian transition in upland regions: learning from Ethiopia, Kenya and Nepal.
    This paper analyses the relationship between cyclical labour migration and agrarian transition in the uplands of Nepal, Ethiopia and Kenya. It shows that while migration decision-making is linked to expanding capitalist markets, it is mediated by local cultural, political and ecological changes.
    Read more..

 

  • Examining migration governance: evidence of rising insecurities due to COVID-19 in China, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Morocco, Nepal and Thailand.
    The manuscript ‘Examining migration governance: evidence of rising insecurities due to COVID-19 in China, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Morocco, Nepal and Thailand’, authored by Asel Murzakulova (UCA), Mengistu Dessalegn (IWMI), and Neelambari Phalkey (UoB), was assessed by reviewers for the Journal Comparative Migration Studies, and was recommended for publication by the journal’s editor. The writing team worked on the requested revisions and consulted with the Steering Group before submitting the final version of the article at the beginning of July 2021. The paper is based on rapid research undertaken by the AGRUMIG consortium in 2020.

 

  • Policy Brief No. 70: The Impact of Climate Change Induced and Environmental Challenges on Migration Dynamics in Rural Kyrgyzstan.

    Environmental disasters and climate induced challenges heavily impact people’s livelihoods, especially those in the poorest segments of society who lack the adaptive resources and capabilities to respond accordingly.
    Read more..

 

 

  • AGRUMIG China Team publication ‘Mechanisation and efficiency in rice production in China.
    Dr Shi Min, a member of the South China Agricultural University (SCAU) AGRUMIG team, has had a paper accepted by the Journal of Integrative Agriculture. The paper addresses the issue of mechanisation as a primary adaptation strategy – and is from AGRUMIG field sites. The findings confirm that mechanisation is unlikely to significantly impact yields, especially in fragmented plots – however, it is a necessity for dealing with labour scarcity. The paper’s policy recommendations regarding land transfer market development and mechanised chemical application also have relevance for AGRUMIG’s policy work in China. The full reference is: ‘Mechanisation and efficiency in rice production in China’ in the Journal of Integrative Agriculture 20(7): 2-14.

 

  • Comparative Migration Studies article acceptance.
    The manuscript ‘Examining migration governance: evidence of rising insecurities due to COVID-19 in China, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Morocco, Nepal and Thailand’, authored by Asel Murzakulova (UCA), Mengistu Dessalegn (IWMI), and Neelambari Phalkey (UoB), was assessed by reviewers for the Journal Comparative Migration Studies, and was recommended for publication by the journal’s editor. The writing team worked on the requested revisions and consulted with the Steering Group before submitting the final version of the article at the beginning of July 2021. The paper is based on rapid research undertaken by the AGRUMIG consortium in 2020.

 

  • AGRUMIG Policy Brief Series No. 4:
    COVID-19 and Migration Uncertainty in Kyrgyzstan: To Leave or Stay and Earn?
    Kyrgyzstan is one of the most remittance-dependent countries in the world. However, the global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has severely affected remittance slows to low and middle-income countries (LMICs) generally, and remittance-dependent economies such as Kyrgyzstan have found themselves deeply vulnerable.
    Read more..

 

  • AGRUMIG Policy Brief Series – No. 3
    The Precarity of Transnational Migration and the Covid-19 Pandemic: Addressing Female Return Migration in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
    Read more..

 

 

 

 

  • AGRUMIG Policy Brief Series – No. 2
    Migration, particularly labor migration, is a complex social phenomenon with many facets. These include regular and irregular migration patterns, international and internal migration pathways, and short- and long-term movements.
    Read more..

 

 

 

  • AGRUMIG Policy Brief Series – No. 1
    Unprecedented levels of migration in today’s globalized economy are dramatically reshaping social, economic and political landscapes in sending and receiving countries.
    Read more..

 

 

 

 

  • UCA-MSRI Research Paper No. 7:
    Rural Migration in Kyrgyzstan: Drivers, Impact and Governance
    The development of Kyrgyzstan reveals two important trends: declining agricultural production and a steady increase of remittances from labor migration. These trends suggest a transformative effect of migration, negating an overly simplistic investment effect of financial remittances on long standing livelihood activities.
    Read more..

 

 

  • CAP Paper No. 247:
    Migration and COVID-19: Challenges and Policy Responses in Kyrgyzstan
    Migration is a part of everyday life for hundreds of thousands of Kyrgyzstan’s citizens. People move internally from rural areas to Bishkek and Osh for long-term employment or temporary work, and many go to Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkey, and other countries.

 

 

 

 

Media

Animated Video: Impact of Migration on Rural Development in Kyrgyzstan

Majlis Podcast: Bad News For The Remittance-Dependent In Central Asia

Irina Kuznetsova of the AGRUMIG Kyrgyzstan team contributes to a conversation on the drop in remittances to Central Asian countries. She discusses recent AGRUMIG project findings on the impact of Covid-19 on migrants from Kyrgyzstan and their families as well as shares her observations about Tajikistan.

Resources

Covid-Migration News Database, University of Vienna

How do international and national news outlets report on the impacts of Covid-19 on migrants? The database provides 3175 news headlines from 213 countries (as of 01/2021), sorted by e.g. country origin and destination.

Comments are closed.